In this chapter, the authors will attempt to review the literature on borderline children, present criteria for diagnosis (which due to developmentally different levels of maturity, are different from those of borderline adults), and discuss specific guidelines for treatment. (71 pp.)
The developmental process is directed at self-regulatory behavior and the relative independence of behavior from immediate stimulation. There is internalization of the environment so that events in the world can be mentally represented. Once the internal world is created, the child begins to structure stimuli and select adaptive responses rather than reaching automatically. The last step in cognitive development has been termed operational thinking. This divorce of thought from appearance is perhaps the very foundation of human functioning. (68 pp.)
There is controversy whether true depression can exists prior to late childhood. The reaction of infants to separation may be better conceived of as a grief reaction. The question is how the developmental process allows or limits the experience or expression of varying pathological moods and affects.
Depression like States of Infancy
Depression During Early Childhood
Depression in Middle and Late Childhood
Attempts at Classification of Childhood Depression
The deprivation of the infant, the inhibition of the toddler, the stimulus-bound sadness of the young child, the limited depression of the older child, and the exaggerated yet acutely felt despair of the adolescent may all be understood best against a framework of the developmental process.