Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation
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We now present an attributional framework that resolves several theoretical controversies about the effects of uncontrollability in humans. In brief, we argue that when a person finds that he is helpless, he asks why he is helpless. The causal attribution he makes then determines the generality and chronicity of his helplessness deficits as well as his lowered self-esteem (121 pgs).